T cell enhanced by BCG/TB is the key to fight against C19 and Dectin-2+TB/BCG may prevent the severe stage of C19, cytokine storm.
T cell immunity is the key to fight against COVID-19 and it is enhanced by BCG/TB.
Don't care about antibodies. Let's care for innate immunity; T cell and macrophage.
Robust T cell immunity in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19
- There are SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells
- SARS-CoV2-specific T cells were detectable in antibody-seronegative family members and individuals with a history of asymptomatic or mild COVID-19.
- While there are few SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells in blood donors of 2019, there are a substantial number of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells in blood donors of 2020.
-> These suggest that human can generate SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells just by exposing themselves to SARS-CoV-2 without getting infected.
Our preliminary analyses showed that the absolute numbers and relative frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were unphysiologically low in patients with acute moderate or severe COVID-19
Dectin-2+TB/BCG may prevent cytokine storm
Dectin-2 Is a Direct Receptor for Mannose-Capped Lipoarabinomannan of Mycobacteria
Mycobacteria possess various immunomodulatory molecules on the cell wall. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM), a major lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has long been known to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on host immunity. However, the direct Man-LAM receptor that explains its pleiotropic activities has not been clearly identified. Here, we report that a C-type lectin receptor Dectin-2 (gene symbol Clec4n) is a direct receptor for Man-LAM. Man-LAM activated bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to produce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, whereas it was completely abrogated in Clec4n–/– BMDCs. Man-LAM promoted antigen-specific T cell responses through Dectin-2 on DCs. Furthermore, Man-LAM induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) as an adjuvant in mice, whereas Clec4n–/– mice were resistant. Upon mycobacterial infection, Clec4n–/– mice showed augmented lung pathology. These results demonstrate that Dectin-2 contributes to host immunity against mycobacterial infection through the recognition of Man-LAM.
BCG/TB can enhance not only pro-inflammatory cytokines but also anti-inflammatory cytokines. In other words, a human can get better accelerator and brake of the immune system with BCG/TB.
I believe we are getting close to knowing how BCG/TB works against COVID-19.